Today, soy protein is considered the most high-quality and low-cost solution of the problem of the protein deficit in the world. Soy is the most important actually existing world reserve of food and feed protein. On the level of processing of soybeans as a forage crop affects the situation in the meat sector. Strong demand for meat and meat products leads to growing of demand for high protein feed and to the expansion of soybean.
The value of soybean meal as feed products is determined by their composition. The presence of high protein content, carbohydrates, fat, phosphorus compounds, minerals, vitamins, making it an indispensable in feeding farm animals.
The development of animal husbandry and poultry farming in Ukraine is characterized by a growth stock and by increase the productivity of farm animals. This is directly related to the increase in the proportion of protein in animal feed components and increasing needs of cake and meal of oilseeds consequently. Soy products feed is the most concentrated by energy and protein among the known sources of nutrients of rations and fodder for animals. The secret of success of efficient use of soybeans is the accumulation in the grain of this culture of high quality protein and energy simultaneously. Compare it in the data Table 1, to ensure that soybean meal has no close competitors in a concentration of major nutrients in 1 kg of dry matter.
In recent years, technology and equipment for production of fodder soy products greatly improved. Soybean meal is fed to all types age and sex of animals.
During the processing of 1 ton of soybean seeds obtained 7.5-8.0 quintal of meal, it is two times more than from sunflower seeds. In addition, soybean meal significantly is the most nutritious from others forage plant. The content of gross energy per 1 kg of soybean and sunflower meal is almost the same, but the rate of energy exchange is respectively 2603 and 1907 kcal. For this indicator, soybean meal is almost twice as wheat bran and much higher than meat and bone meal and milk powder. It has less fat and is better absorbed in comparison with sunflower meal. Heat treatment or toasting imparts soybean meal a pleasant smell and eated well by all kinds of animals. It is a particularly good food for the young animals.
For example, the diets of early age chickens, young meat chickens, broilers, the first days rearing turkeys and quails without soy products is impossible. Unique high concentration of protein and energy per unit mass of dry matter allows to supply enough nutrients in a small amount of the body feed. So the young bird that consumes enough natural food in the first days and weeks of life, will be able to obtain sufficient energy and protein feeding for intensive growth and differentiation of tissues. Furthermore, such a saturation of soy protein and energy per unit mass of dry requires fewer enzymes and their activity for the digestion of nutrients. That is why digestibility of feeding soybean in young maximized.
The effect of soy is noticeable if the level of its physical mass in the compound feed for young poultry is raised to the level of 15% or more. Broiler first weeks of life can be without 15-20% of soybean meal in the diet composition and turkeys is required to 25% of the weight soybean prescription for the creation in the compound feed at least 24% protein with a high concentration of essential amino acids. Introduction of soybean meal in the diet of modern intensive poultry breeds has played a key role in increasing the production of broiler meat and eggs of birds. The intensification of the poultry industry is closely linked to the use of soybean meal. For broilers soybean meal and extruded soybeans was an excellent full-fat high-protein feed, without which it is now impossible to imagine the development of current and future poultry.
Soybean meal has an ideal ratio of amino acids for feeding pigs. When 1 ton of soybean mealis used as the protein ingredient in animal feed it provides 10% of their input receive 10t balanced on protein and amino acid feed, which provides a feeding of 1.7 m pork, soy without additives by the same amount of growth live weight would require 15 tons of feed grain.
An important role is played by soybean meal in feeding dairy cattle, particularly high yielding cows. It is known that the microflora rumen of cows with milk production over 3.5-4 thousand. Kg per year can not fully meet the needs of the animal to the essential amino acids. The most accessible for the enrichment of high-value animal feed amino acid composition is the protein soybean meal. Turning it into a winter diet of dairy cows (1-2 kg per head per day) increases milk yield of 1.5-2 liters. On 1 liter of milk at the same flow rate of 1 - 1.05 feed units, and if not a balanced diet of protein is required to 1.4-1.6 f.e.
According to many scientific institutions and practices gain of weight from the diet of soybean meal, rose by 31.9%, gilts - by 5.3%, chicken - 7.1%, egg-laying hens increased by 22% on 1 kg growth of pigs spend on average 4.8 f. e. 10 against the norm.
The use of soybean meal is quite cost-effective. Soybean meal is always in demand, especially at a time when farmers are increasingly using new technologies and approaches to the management of the economy, which implies a responsible attitude not only to the modernization and equipment of the enterprises, but also to the choice of feed.